Goldbergs, Grigorijs. 2021. “Impact of Base-to-Height Ratio on Canopy Height Estimation Accuracy of Hemiboreal Forest Tree Species by Using Satellite and Airborne Stereo Imagery” Remote Sensing 13, no. 15: 2941.


All authors:

Grijorijs Goldbergs


The present study assessed the large-format airborne (UltraCam) and satellite (GeoEye1 and Pleiades1B) image-based digital surface model (DSM) performance for canopy height estimation in predominantly mature, closed-canopy Latvian hemiboreal forestland. The research performed the direct comparison of calculated image-based DSM models with canopy peaks heights extracted from reference LiDAR data. The study confirmed the tendency for canopy height underestimation for all satellite-based models. The obtained accuracy of the canopy height estimation GeoEye1-based models varied as follows: for a pine (−1.49 median error, 1.52 m normalised median absolute deviation (NMAD)), spruce (−0.94 median, 1.97 m NMAD), birch (−0.26 median, 1.96 m NMAD), and black alder (−0.31 median, 1.52 m NMAD). The canopy detection rates (completeness) using GeoEye1 stereo imagery varied from 98% (pine) to >99% for spruce and deciduous tree species. This research has shown that determining the optimum base-to-height (B/H) ratio is critical for canopy height estimation efficiency and completeness using image-based DSMs. This study found that stereo imagery with a B/H ratio range of 0.2–0.3 (or convergence angle range 10–15°) is optimal for image-based DSMs in closed-canopy hemiboreal forest areas.